主管:中华人民共和国司法部
主办:司法鉴定科学研究院
ISSN 1671-2072  CN 31-1863/N
2024 Issue 3 (Total No. 134)
Published: 15 May 2024
Previous Issue   
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails

Special Topic Discussion:Forensic Appraisal of Environmental Damage
Research on the Application of Virtual Governance Cost Method in Forensic Appraisal of Environmental Damage in Public Interest Litigation——Empirical Analysis Based on 132 Cases
GUO Chao, GE Yiwen, LÜ Jungang
2024(3): 1-8.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.001
Abstract ( )   PDF (965KB) ( )  
As a common environmental value evaluation method in the identification and assessment methods of environmental damage,virtual governance cost method plays a key role in the determination of environmental damage liability in public interest litigation cases. This paper analyzes and sorts out the time distribution,regional distribution,plaintiff,case type,pollution type,entrustment appraisal,and appraisal cost of 132 public interest litigation cases from 2017 to 2022 (based on the judgment date),systematically summarizes the problems existing in the practical application of virtual governance cost method in public interest litigation,such as incorrect analysis of application scope,irregular or wrong value of unit governance cost and environmental function coefficient,and pertinently puts forward countermeasures and suggestions,such as issuing specific work guidelines,emphasizing the role of expert opinions,strengthening the review of technical evidence and the standardized management of appraisal institutions. It is of great significance to optimize and improve the application of this method in public interest litigation and promote the standardization of forensic appraisal of environmental damage.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Research on Forensic Appraisal of Marine Environmental Pollution——Based on Analysis of Relevant Judgment Documents in 2017—2022
WANG Qing, ZHANG Qing, HAO Yongsheng, DU Kai, ZHAO Zongshan, YAO Jiaqiang, LÜ Jungang
2024(3): 9-14.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.002
Abstract ( )   PDF (743KB) ( )  
With the rapid development of the marine economy,the problem of marine environmental pollution has become increasingly prominent. In this paper,a total of 55 marine environmental pollution judgment documents on marine environmental pollution from 2017 to 2022 have been analyzed,and the types and implementation of these judgement documents have also been summarized from the perspective of judicial practice. These cases mainly relate to ship pollution,land-based pollutants,marine dumping and marine development,accounting for 25.45%,30.91%,14.55% and 29.09%,respectively. The forensic appraisal of these cases depends on professional knowledge,covering a wide range of fields. More than 80% involve forensic appraisal of  physical and chemical determination or damage appraisal and evaluation. It was found that the cases involving forensic appraisal  have some similar characteristics,including clearer indicators,weaker traceability,higher costs for appraisal and evaluation,and inconsistent charging standards. In order to better support the handling of marine environmental pollution cases, forensic appraisal works should pay more attention on developing appraisal techniques on new pollutants and innovative methods on pollution traceability,attaching importance to expert opinions and setting uniform evaluation criteria.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Research on the Current Status and Case Practice of Environmental Damage Appraisal and Assessment in Illegal Mining Cases#br#
ZHANG Qing, WANG Qing, LÜ Jungang
2024(3): 15-22.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.003
Abstract ( )   PDF (611KB) ( )  
In recent years,illegal mining has repeatedly occurred in some regions,causing serious damages to national resources and ecosystems. To pursue the environmental restoration and compensation liabilities of those who illegally mine,environmental public interest litigation or ecological environment damage compensation cases often need to rely on environmental damage identification and assessment for confirmation at the technical level. Through a systematic review of the current situation of ecological and environmental damage appraisal and assessment in illegal mining cases,it is found that there are problems such as inconsistent appraisal and assessment methods and significant differences in results. Taking three representative cases of ecological and environmental damage appraisal and assessment as examples,the main differences lie in the definition of basic restoration,the method of determining intermediate damage,and the calculation of ecological and environmental damage costs. It is suggested to further improve environmental damage appraisal,to enhance the credibility of appraisal and assessment results,and to ensure uniform standards in handling cases,so as to  maintain forensic fairness from three aspects:unifying forensic appraisal standards,improving supervision and management,and strengthening capacity building.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Special Topic Discussion:New Quality Productive Forces in the Field of Forensic Appraisal
The Potential Value of Virtual Reality Technology in Forensic Clinical Medicine
XU Luyao, LIU Cong, LIU Zilong
2024(3): 23-31.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.004
Abstract ( )   PDF (756KB) ( )  
Virtual reality(VR) technology,characterized by immersion,interactivity,imagination,and high integration,facilitates precise measurement and digital simulation of injuries in forensic clinical medicine,as well as intelligent assessment of visual,auditory,and other biological functions,thus providing more scientific and objective evidence for court trials and compensation. Development of forensic clinical skills training,case teaching,and competency-standardized assessment platforms based on VR can offer new perspectives for professional education,case investigation,and scientific research in forensic clinical medicine. Attaching great importance to the significance of VR technology in forensic clinical medicine and conducting continuous in-depth research will promote the digital and intelligent transformation of forensic identification on living body injury and better serve the strategy of law-based governance.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Status of Forensic Microbiology Research Based on Machine Learning
ZHANG Liwei, WANG Tian, YU Daijing, ZHANG Jun, YAN Jiangwei
2024(3): 32-40.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.005
Abstract ( )   PDF (961KB) ( )  
 Microorganisms are widely present in nature and in human body. Their diverse community distribution provides new possibilities for solving forensic science challenges. As one of the main tools in artificial intelligence,machine learning plays a crucial role in data identification,processing and analysis,providing new ideas and methods for forensic microbiology research. This paper introduces various machine learning(ML) algorithms and related models,including supervised learning,unsupervised learning and deep learning,which have been widely used in recent forensic microbiology studies,and summarizes relevant studies on individual identification,postmortem interval inference,geographic location traceability. In addition,this paper systematically analyses challenges faced by machine learning algorithms in standardization,database establishment and evidence interpretation in forensic microbiology research,and discusses its application in forensic microbiology.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Strategies Driven by Artificial Intelligence Technology for Time Problems in Forensic Pathology
LI Na, ZHANG Shurui, SUN Junhong
2024(3): 41-48.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.006
Abstract ( )   PDF (712KB) ( )  
In the field of forensic pathology,time related issues such as postmortem interval (PMI),the age of wound,the age of bloodstain,and age of thrombosis are directly related with the cause of death and the time of incident. Issues above play a key role in forensic links such as case investigation,responsibilities allocation,and conviction and sentencing. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, the demand for data analysis in various industries continues to increase. Machine learning technology represented by simulated human brain has been applied in many fields of medical research,providing new methods and ideas for solving forensic pathological time problems. This article reviews a series of relevant papers on the application of AI technology in solving time related problems in recent years,hoping to provide assistance and stimulate new ideas for complex forensic problems,and provide more scientific and objective evidence for forensic practice.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Study on the Rapid Imaging Diagnosis of Femoral Neck Fracture by Artificial Intelligence
MA Wenjing, LIU Fan, ZHAO Liang, LIU Hua, PEI Jingzhe, ZHANG Rui, SHI Wei
2024(3): 49-54.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.007
Abstract ( )   PDF (1311KB) ( )  
Objective To develop an artificial intelligence (AI) method for the rapid imaging diagnosis of human femoral neck fractures and realize automatic evaluation. Methods A total of 1 018 cases of femoral neck fractures were collected and divided into training set (676 cases),validation set (112 cases),and test set (230 cases). The training set and validation set were used to construct the evaluation model of femoral neck fracture through three steps: automatic image pretreatment,fracture diagnosis model construction and model evaluation. The test set was used to validate the model. Results A database of 1 018 cases of femoral neck fracture was established. The accuracy of the established intelligent assessment model in identifying femoral neck fractures reached 78.7%. Conclusion The established intelligent evaluation model will provide technical support for the development of automatic evaluation software of femoral neck fractures.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Forensic Science
Determination of Tiletamine and Etomidate in E-Cigarette Oil by HPLC-MS/MS
MA Jun, YAN Xin, ZHANG Teng, LEI Jiamei, LI Nan, CUI Zhe, LIU Xingliang, ZHAO Xia
2024(3): 55-59.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.008
Abstract ( )   PDF (643KB) ( )  
Objective To establish a rapid method for the determination of tiletamine and etomidate in e-cigarette oil using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS). Methods The samples were diluted with methanol and filtered through filter membrane. C18 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2 μm) was used as separation column. Gradient elution was performed with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1%(volume fraction) formic acid aqueous solution. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and positive ionization was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of tiletamine and etomidate. Results Tiletamine had good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.02-10.00 ng/mL, and etomidate had good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.05-10.00 ng/mL. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. The limit of detection for tiletamine and etomidate were 0.01 ng/mL and   0.02 ng/mL, respectively, and the limit of quantification were 0.02 ng/mL and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. In the spike recovery experiment, the recovery rate of the samples ranged from 95.81% to 102.05%. Conclusion The method is simple to operate with good reproducibility and can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of trace amounts of tiletamine and etomidate in e-cigarette oil.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Research on the Computer-aided Quantity Analysis of Pen Pressure in Signatures
LI Xuecan, LI Zhen, SUN Yiping, WANG Zixin, GU Zhenyu
2024(3): 60-69.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.009
Abstract ( )   PDF (4611KB) ( )  
Objective To analyze pen pressure characteristics fast and accurately in signature examination,and realize correlation examination between signatures on paper and digital signatures. Methods A static signature pen pressure characteristic analysis system was developed,which enables the visualization analysis of pen pressure in signatures on paper. Moreover,a dynamic signature pen pressure characteristic analysis system was developed for the quantitative  analysis of pen pressure in digital signatures. Results The two systems allowed the examiners to perform visualization analysis of pen pressure in black gel pen signatures and quantitative examination of pen pressure in digital signatures. A related examination of pen pressure in both types of signatures was achieved,improving the accuracy of signature identification. Conclusion The static and dynamic signature pen pressure characteristic analysis system can assist in the quantitative analysis of pen pressure in signatures.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Forensic Forum
Research on the Cultivation Path of Forensic Appraisal Personnel under the Background of “Integration of Law and Engineering”——From the Perspective of Criminal Investigation, Criminal Science and Technology Major Development in Political Science and Law Colleges
SHEN Zhenyi, DU Zhichun
2024(3): 70-75.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.010
Abstract ( )   PDF (648KB) ( )  
The construction of modern public legal service system such as forensic appraisal is inseparable from the training and support of specialized talents. The Ministry of Justice’s Rules for the Registration and Review of Forensic Science Institutions for Forensic Medicine,Physical Evidence and Audio and Video Data includes criminal investigation and criminal science and technology in the relevant majors for the admission of forensic appraisal,which has injected new vitality into the transformation and development of the above-mentioned majors in political science and law colleges and universities and the optimization of talent training. In view of the cross-attribute of law and natural science and technology,forensic appraisal should not only become the new growth point of profession of criminal investigation and criminal science and technology,but also deal with the cross-integration relationship of “law” and “engineering” in the development process of the above-mentioned profession,and explore the construction of the training path for specialized talents of “integration of law and engineering” in line with the needs of the forensic science industry.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The Dilemma and Approach to Apply Standards for Forensic Appraisal of Psychiatric Medical Malpracitce
WANG Qiang, SUN Daming
2024(3): 76-83.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.011
Abstract ( )   PDF (711KB) ( )  
Forensic appraisal of medical damage needs high quality standards to improve its scientific nature,consistency and reliability. The existing Guidelines for Forensic Appraisal of Medical Damage exhibit limited effectiveness in resolving the standardized practice conundrum of psychiatric medical damage forensic appraisal. They fail to genuinely address practical challenges such as the inconsistent professional background requirements for psychiatric medical damage appraisers,the unclear efficacy of statements from individuals assessed with mental disorders,the ambiguous boundary division of current professional classification standards for appraisal scope,and the absence of professional operational guidelines for psychiatric malpractice assessment. At present,the development of the Guidelines for Forensic Appraisal of Psychiatric Medical Damage represents a novel breakthrough for resolving these genuine difficulties. Analyzing the Guidelines for Forensic Appraisal of Medical Damage and appraisal practices,it is anticipated that new insights will emerge for the standardization of psychiatric medical damage forensic appraisal. The crux of overcoming genuine difficulties lies in formulating industry standards to regulate the appraisal process,encompassing explicit requirements for appraisers’ professional backgrounds,the establishment of a specialized hearing system involving the individual being assessed,precise delineation of the appraisal scope for psychiatric medical damage,and standardized classification of psychiatric malpractice types. These aspects should be integrated into the Guidelines for Forensic Appraisal of Psychiatric Medical Damage. Moving forward,the standardization governance of psychiatric medical damage appraisal should be initiated by this guideline and continually refined and amplified.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The Construction Path of the Dual Supervision System for Public Security Organ’s Appraisal
MA Chenjun, ZHANG Qinghua
2024(3): 84-93.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.012
Abstract ( )   PDF (706KB) ( )  
Since the 37th meeting of the Central Committee's Comprehensive Deepening Reform Group in 2017,which reviewed and approved the Implementation Opinions on Improving the Unified Forensic Appraisal Management System,some scholars have called for the merger of the dual track parallel systems of forensic appraisal supervision by judicial administrative departments and public security organs to achieve unified management. In fact,the unified forensic appraisal management does not require a single forensic appraisal management organ,but aims to improve unified forensic appraisal norms,standards,and requirements,to promote the rationality,stability,and relative consistency of forensic appraisal supervision norms between judicial administrative departments and public security organs within their respective constitutions. Based on this,a single vertical administrative management model is obviously difficult to cope with the current difficulties in the supervision of public security forensic appraisal technology. If the lack of technical supervision mechanism is not filled through reform,it will inevitably affect the effective operation of the public security forensic science quality control system. Therefore,a dual regulatory model combining administrative management and industry self-discipline management should be established to improve the public security organs’ supervision system of forensic appraisal,making it in line with the reasonable positioning of public security organs under the unified forensic appraisal management system.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
Identification and Utilization of Common Traffic Injuries in Forensic Appraisal of  Manner of Action in Road Traffic Accidents
ZHAO Minghui, JIANG Zhenfei, LI Wei, ZHANG Peifeng
2024(3): 94-101.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2024.03.013
Abstract ( )   PDF (1435KB) ( )  
The identification of traffic behavior patterns of individuals involved in road traffic accidents is an important part of the comprehensive identification of road traffic accident traces and physical evidence, which involves interdisciplinary knowledge. Typical traffic injuries, trace evidence, and trajectories with distinct characteristics serve as significant pieces of evidence to determine such manner of action and provide definitive opinions. In road traffic accidents, individuals suffer injuries of varying degrees from vehicle collisions. By analyzing the morphology and mechanisms of these injuries, it is possible to objectively determine the manner of action of the parties involved. Typical traffic injuries, in particular, play a critical role as evidence in these cases. This study aims to explore how to identify and utilize crucial evidence by examining and summarizing the morphology and injury mechanisms, and introduces identification practice of ten typical types of traffic injuries. The ultimate goal is to comprehensively determine manner of action of individuals involved in accidents combined with eligible conditions, and provide reference for future forensic appraisal practices in this area.
References | Related Articles | Metrics